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OUR GOALS

The prospects arising from the creation of such a
cohort are many and diverse.


This multicenter investigation will allow a homogenous collection of data and fulfill the need of improving international knowledge on multi-resistant bacteriaHow do bacteria become resistant to antibioticsAntibiotic resistance
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing steadily worldwide in hospitals as well as in the community. These infections often have more severe outcomes than those caused by so called "sensitive" bacteria. As a consequence, they also require more expensive second-line treatments as well as a more careful and costly follow-up care for patients.
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Bacteria can become resistant to some antibiotics: (i) innately or (ii) due to genetic changes that allow them to escape the effects of antibiotics to which they are usually sensitive.
infections in young children from low-income countriesLow-income countries
The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countriesDeveloping country
This term is generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being. Since no single definition of the term developing country is recognized internationally, the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries. Some developing countries have high average standards of living.

The World Bank classifies all low- and middle-income countries as developing but notes, "The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status".
around the world. It is not a bank in the common sense. It is made up of two unique development institutions owned by 187 member countries: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). Each institution plays a different but collaborative role in advancing the vision of inclusive and sustainable globalization. The IBRD aims to reduce poverty in middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries, while the IDA focuses on the world's poorest countries.

For operational and analytical purposes, the World Bank's main criterion for classifying economies is gross national income (GNI) per capita. Based on its annual GNI per capita, every economy is classified as low-income, middle income (lower and upper middle income) or high income.
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Thanks to the prospective design of this program, an analysis of the risk factors for acquiring these resistant bacterial infections in the community or in the hospital can be made including an estimated proportion of morbidity and mortality of children attributable to resistance. This study has the potential to go far in advancing the combat against antibiotic resistanceAntibiotic resistance
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing steadily worldwide in hospitals as well as in the community. These infections often have more severe outcomes than those caused by so called "sensitive" bacteria. As a consequence, they also require more expensive second-line treatments as well as a more careful and costly follow-up care for patients.
worldwide, making this issue a genuine public health priority.

Knowledge of the consequences of resistance to antibiotics is crucial because it will contribute: (i) to guide health-care policy, especially regarding the use and supply of antibiotics; (ii) to establish programs to combat resistance in health care systems; (iii) to determine the prognosis of individual patients and (iv) to stimulate further research programs (Maragakis LL et al, 2008, Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther) (Cosgrove SE, 2006, Clin Infect Dis).

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All of the bacterial strains identified in children will be included in a bacteriological collection, identified and frozen in order to study the mechanisms of resistance and to monitor the emergence of new ones. This aspect of the study will significantly contribute to the understanding of the spread of resistance mechanisms worldwide.

The possibility of industrial partnerships should also be considered. Indeed, such an international cohort of young children is invaluable since it could serve as an applied and translational research platform within which evaluation of vaccines (commercialized or in development for pneumococcus, enterobacteria, staphylococcus) and rapid diagnostic tools (bacteriological tests, rapid tests for resistance) could be easily performed.